Publications

Refereed publications presented in reverse chronological order.

Refereed Publications

  1. Dorchin, A., M.M. López-Uribe, C.J. Praz, T. Griswold, B.N. Danforth (2018). Phylogeny, new generic-level classification, and historical biogeography of the Eucera complex (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 119: 81-92.
  2. Grab, H., K. Poveda, B.N. Danforth, G. Loeb (2018). Landscape simplification reduces classical biological control and crop yield. Ecological Applications [published online 18 January 2018]
  3. Pauw, A., B. Kahnt, M. Kuhlmann, D. Michez, G. Montgomery, E. Murray, B.N. Danforth (2017). Long-legged bees make adaptive leaps: linking adaptation to coevolution in a plant-pollinator network. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 284 (1862), 20171707. [published online ## August, 2017, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.1707]
  4. Kahnt, B., G.A. Montgomery, E. Murray, M. Kuhlmann, A. Pauw, D. Michez, R.J. Paxton, B.N. Danforth (2017). Playing with extremes: origins and evolution of exaggerated forelegs in South African Rediviva bees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 115: 95-105.
  5. Russo, L. & B.N. Danforth (2017). Pollen preferences among the bee species visiting apple (Malus domesticus) in eastern New York. Apidologie 48(6): 806-820 [published online 3 July, 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s13592-017-0525-3]
  6. Glastad, K.M. S.V. Arsenault, K.L. Vertacnik, S.M. Geib, S.Kay, B.N. Danforth, S.M. Rehan, C.R. Linnen, S.D. Kocher, B.G. Hunt (2017). Variation in DNA methylation is not consistently reflected by sociality in Hymenoptera. Genome Biol. Evol. 9(6):1687-1698.
  7. Russo, L., E.J. Blitzer, M.L. Park, & B.N. Danforth (2017). Flower handling behavior and abundance determine the relative contribution of pollinators to seed set in apple orchards. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 246: 102-108.
  8. Lichtenberg, E.M., C.M. Kennedy, C. Kremen, et al. (2017). A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity at field and landscape scales. Global Change Biology 6 [DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13714]
  9. Grab, H., E.J. Blitzer, B.N. Danforth, G. Loeb, & K. Poveda (2017). Temporally mediated Good timing makes good neighbors: pollinator competition and facilitation with mass flowering crops affects yield in co-blooming crops. Nature Scientific Reports 7:45296
  10. Bossert, S., E.A. Murray, B.B. Blaimer, & B.N. Danforth (2017). The impact of GC bias on phylogenetic accuracy using targeted enrichment phylogenomic data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 111: 149-157
  11. Branstetter, M.G., B.N. Danforth, J.P. Pitts, B.C. Faircloth, P.S. Ward, M.L. Buffington, M.W. Gates, R.R. Kula. & S.G. Brady (2017). Phylogenomics and improved taxon sampling resolve relationships among ants, bees, and stinging wasps. Current Biology 27:1019-1024
  12. López Uribe, M. J. Cane, R. Minckley, B.N. Danforth (2016). Crop domestication facilitated rapid geographic expansion of a specialist pollinator, the squash bee Peponapis pruinosa. Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. (B) Proc. R. Soc. B 283: 20160443
  13. Litman, J.R., T. Griswold, B.N. Danforth (2016). Phylogenetic systematics and a revised generic classification of anthidiine bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 100: 183-198. [DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.018]
  14. Blitzer, E.J., J. Gibbs, M.G. Park, B.N. Danforth (2016). Pollination services for apple depend on functionally diverse wild bee communities. Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 221: 1-7
  15. Park, M.G., R.A. Raguso, J.E. Losey, B.N. Danforth (2016). Per-visit pollinator performance and regional importance of wild Bombus and Andrena (Melandrena) compared to the managed honey bee in New York apple orchards. Apidologie 47:145–160
  16. Russo, L., M.G. Park, J. Gibbs, B.N. Danforth (2015). The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards. Ecology and Evolution 5(17): 3531–3540
  17. Hedtke S.M., E.J. Blitzer, G.A. Montgomery, B.N. Danforth (2015). Introduction of non-native pollinators can lead to trans-continental movement of bee-associated fungi. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0130560 [published online 23 June 2015, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130560]
  18. Kleijn, D., R. Winfree, I. Bartomeus, L. Cavalheiro, et al. (2015). Managing for pollinators or pollination: conflicts between biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service delivery. Nature Communications 6:7414 [published online 16 June, 2015, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8414]
  19. Park, M.G., E.J. Blitzer, J. Gibbs, J.E. Losey, B.N. Danforth (2015). Combined effect of pesticides and landscape simplification compromises wild pollinators. Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. (B) [published online 3 June 2015, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2015.0299]
  20. López-Uribe, M,M,, S.J. Morreale, C.K. Santiago, B.N. Danforth (2015) Nest suitability, fine-scale population structure and male-mediated dispersal of a solitary ground nesting bee in an urban landscape. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0125719. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125719
  21. López-Uribe, M.M., K.R. Zamudio, C.F. Cardoso and B.N. Danforth (2014). Climate, physiological tolerance, and sex-biased dispersal shape genetic structure of Neotropical orchid bees. Molecular Ecology 23(7): 1874-1890 [published online 7 February, 2014, DOI: 10.1111/mec.12689]
  22. Bartomeus, I., M.G. Park, J. Gibbs, B.N. Danforth, A.N. Lakso, & R. Winfree (2013). Biodiversity as insurance against plant-pollinator phenological asynchrony. Ecology Letters [published online 23 August, 2013, doi: 10.1111/ele.12170]
  23. Hedtke, S., S. Patiny, B.N. Danforth (2013). Resolving the Bee Tree of Life : bioinformatic approaches to apoid phylogeny. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:138
  24. Gibbs, J., L. Packer, S. Dumesh, and B.N. Danforth (2013).)Revision and reclassification of Lasioglossum (Evylaeus), L. (Hemihalictus) and L. (Sphecodogastra) in eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Zootaxa 3672 (1): 1-117
  25. Litman, J.R., C.J. Praz, T.L. Griswold, B.N. Danforth, S.C. Cardinal (2013). Origins, evolution, and diversification of cleptoparasitic lineages in long-tongued bees. Evolution [published online 7 June, 2013, DOI: 10.1111/evo.12161]
  26. Cardinal, S. & B.N. Danforth (2013). Bees diversified in the age of eudicots. Proc. Royal Soc. Lond (B) 280: 1-9 See commentary on this paper in the 22 April issue of Current Biology
  27. Kennedy, C.M., E. Lonsdorf, M.C. Neel, et al. (2013). A global quantitative synthesis of local and landscape effects on native bee pollinators in agroecosystems. Ecology Letters 16(5): 584-599
  28. Bartomeus, I., J.S. Ascher, J. Gibbs, B.N. Danforth, D.L. Wagner, S.M. Hedtke, and R. Winfree (2013). Historical changes in northeastern United States bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 110(12): 4656-4660
  29. Danforth, B.N., S.C. Cardinal, C. Praz, E. Almeida, D. Michez (2013). Impact of molecular data on our understanding of bee phylogeny and evolution. Ann. Rev. Entomology 58: 57-78
  30. López-Uribe, C.K. Santiago, S.M. Bogdanowicz, B.N. Danforth (2012). Discovery and characterization of microsatellites for the solitary bee Colletes inaequalis using Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing. Apidologie 44(2): 163-172.
  31. Gibbs, J., S. Brady, K. Kanda, & B.N. Danforth (2012).Phylogeny of halictine bees supports a shared origin of eusociality for Halictus and Lasioglossum (Apoidea: Anthophila: Halictidae). Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 65: 926-939.
  32. Debevec, A.H., S. Cardinal, & B.N. Danforth (2012). Identifying the sister group to the bees: a molecular phylogeny of aculeata with an emphasis on the superfamily Apoidea. Zoologica Scripta 41: 527-535
  33. Gonzalez, V.H., T. Griswold, C.J. Praz, & B.N. Danforth (2012). Phylogeny of the bee family Megachilidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) based on adult morphology. Systematic Entomology 37: 261-286
  34. De Meulemeester, T., D. Michez, A.M. Aytekin & B.N. Danforth (2012). Taxonomic affinity of halictid bee fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) based on geometric morphometrics analyses of wing shape. J. Syst. Paleo. DOI:10.1080/14772019.2011.628701
  35. Almeida, E.A.B., M.R. Pie, S.G. Brady, & B.N. Danforth (2011). Biogeography and diversification of colletid bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae): emerging patterns from the southern end of the World. J. Biogeography [published ahead of print December 6, 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02624.x]
  36. Bartomeus, I., J.S. Ascher, D. Wagner, B.N. Danforth, S.R. Colla, S. Kornbluth, & R. Winfree (2011). Climate-associated phenological advances in bee pollinators and bee-pollinated plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 108(51): 20645-20649
  37. Litman, J.R., B.N. Danforth, C.D. Eardley, & C.J. Praz (2011). Why do leafcutter bees cut leaves? New insights into the early evolution of bees. Proc. Royal Society of London (B) 278: 3593-3600.
  38. Danforth, B.N. & G.O. Poinar (2011) Morphology, classification, and antiquity of Melittosphex burmensis (Apoidae: Melittosphecidae) and implications for early bee evolution . J. Paleontology 85(5): 882–891.
  39. Brady, S.G., J.R. Litman, & B.N. Danforth (2011). Rooting phylogenies using gene duplications: An empirical example from the bees (Apoidea). Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 60: 295–304.
  40. Cardinal, S. & B.N. Danforth (2011). The antiquity and evolutionary history of social behavior in bees. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21086. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0021086.
  41. Martinson, V.G., Danforth B.N., Minckley R.L., Rueppell, O., Tingek S. and Moran N.A. (2011), A simple and distinctive microbiota associated with honey bees and bumble bees. Molecular Ecology 20: 619–628.
  42. Michez, D., C.D. Eardley, K. Timmermann & B.N. Danforth (2010). Unexpected polylecty in the bee genus Meganomia (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Melittidae). J. Kansas Entomological Society 83(3): 221–230.
  43. Cardinal, S., J. Straka, & B.N. Danforth (2010). Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 107(37): 16207-16211.
  44. López-Uribe, M.M., A.N. Green, S. Ramírez, S.M. Bogdanowicz, and B.N. Danforth (2010). Isolation and cross-species characterization of polymorphic microsatellites for the orchid bee Eulaema meriana (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini). Conservation Genet Resources DOI 10.1007/s12686-010-9271-9
  45. Bradley, T.J., Briscoe, A.D., Brady, S,G., Contreras, H.L., Danforth, B.N., Dudley, R., Grimaldi, D., Harrison, J.F., Kaiser, A., Merlin, C., Reppert, S.M., Vandenbrooks, J.M., and Yanoviak, S.P. (2009) Episodes in insect evolution. Integrative and Comparative Biology 49: 590-606.
  46. Michez, D., S. Patiny & B.N. Danforth (2009). Phylogeny of the bee family Melittidae (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) based on combined molecular and morphological data.. Syst. Entom. 34: 574-597.
  47. Almeida, E.A.B. & B.N. Danforth (2009). Phylogeny of colletid bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Colletidae) inferred from four nuclear genes. Mol. Phylo. Evol. 50(2): 290-309.
  48. Praz, C.J., A. Muller, B.N. Danforth, T.L. Griswold, A. Widmer, & S. Dorn (2008). Phylogeny and biogeography of bees of the tribe Osmiini (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Mol. Phylo. Evol. 49(1): 185-197.
  49. Almeida, E.A.B, L. Packer & B.N. Danforth (2008). Phylogeny of the Xeromelissinae (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) based upon morphology and molecules. Apidologie 39:75-85.
  50. Danforth, B.N., C. Eardley, L. Packer, K. Walker, A. Pauly, & F. Randrianambinintsoa (2008). Phylogeny of Halictidae with an emphasis on the endemic African Halictinae. Apidologie 39:86-101.
  51. Patiny, S., D. Michez, & B.N. Danforth (2007). Phylogenetic relationships and host-plant associations within the basal clade of Halictidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea).
  52. Danforth, B.N. (2007). Bees – a primer. Current Biology 17(5): R156-R161.
  53. Magnacca, K.N. & B.N. Danforth (2007) Low nuclear DNA variation supports a recent origin of Hawaiian Hylaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43(3): 908-915.
  54. Magnacca, K.N. & B.N. Danforth (2006). Evolution and biogeography of native Hawaiian Hylaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Cladistics 22: 393-411.
  55. Poinar, G.O., Jr. & B.N. Danforth (2006). A fossil bee from Early Cretaceous Burmese amber. Science 314: 614.
  56. Schwarz, M.P., M.H. Richards & B.N. Danforth (2006) Changing paradigms in insect social evolution: insights from halictine and allodapine bees. Annual Review of Entomology 52:127-150.
  57. Danforth, B.N., S.D. Sipes, J. Fang, & S.G. Brady (2006). The history of early bee diversification based on give genes plus morphology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103(41): 15118-15123.
  58. Danforth, B.N., J. Fang, & S.D. Sipes (2006). Analysis of familylevel relationships in bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) using 28S and two previously unexplored nuclear genes: CAD and RNA polymerase II. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 39 (2): 358-372.
  59. Brady, S.G., S.D. Sipes, A. Pearson, B.N. Danforth (2006). Recent and simultaneous origins of eusociality in halictid bees. Proc. Royal Soc. London, Series B (Biological Sciences) 273:1643-1649.
  60. Danforth, B.N., C.-P. Lin & J. Fang (2005). How do insect nuclear ribosomal genes compare to protein-coding genes in phylogenetic utility and DNA substitution patterns? Syst. Entomol.30:549-562.
  61. Lin, C.-P., B.N. Danforth, & T.K. Wood (2004). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution of maternal care in membracine treehoppers. Syst. Biol. 53(3): 400-421.
  62. Danforth, B.N., S.G. Brady, S.D. Sipes & A. Pearson (2004). Single copy nuclear genes recover Cretaceous age divergences in bees. Syst. Biol. 53(2): 309-326.
  63. Brady, S.G. & B.N. Danforth (2004). Recent intron gain in elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) of colletid bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Mol. Biol. Evol. 21(4):691-696.
  64. Lin, C.P. & B.N. Danforth (2004). How do insect nuclear and mitochondrial gene substitution patterns differ? Insights from Bayesian analyses of combined data sets. Mol. Phylo. Evol. 30: 686-702.
  65. Danforth, B.N., S. Ji, & L.J. Ballard (2003). Gene flow and population structure in an oligolectic desert bee, Macrotera (Macroteropsis) portalis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). J. Kansas Entomological Society 76(2): 221-235.
  66. Danforth, B.N., L. Conway, & S. Ji (2003). Phylogeny of eusocial Lasioglossum reveals multiple losses of eusociality within a primitively eusocial clade of bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Syst. Biol. 52(1): 23-36.
  67. Danforth, B.N. (2002). Evolution of sociality in a primitively eusocial lineage of bees. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 99(1): 286-290.
  68. Soucy, S.L. & B.N. Danforth (2002). Phylogeography of the socially polymorphic sweat bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Evolution 56 (2): 330-341.
  69. Ascher, J.S., B.N. Danforth, S. Ji (2001). Phylogenetic utility of the major opsin in bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea): a reassessment. Mol. Phylo. Evol. 19: 76-93.
  70. Danforth, B.N. & S. Ji. (2001). Australian Lasioglossum + Homalictus form a monophyletic group: resolving the “Australian enigma.” Syst. Biol. 50(2): 268-283.
  71. Tilmon, K.J., B.N. Danforth, M.P. Hoffmann, W.H. Day (2000). Determining parasitoid species composition in a host population: a new molecular approach. Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 93(3): 640-647.
  72. Danforth, B.N. (1999). Phylogeny of the bee genus Lasioglossum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Syst. Entomol. 24(4): 377-393.
  73. Danforth, B.N., H. Sauquet, L. Packer (1999). Phylogeny of the bee genus Halictus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) based on parsimony and likelihood analyses of nuclear EF-1α sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13(3):605-618.
  74. Danforth, B.N. (1999). Emergence dynamics and bet hedging in a desert bee Perdita portalis. Proc. Royal Society of London 266:1985-1994.
  75. Danforth, B.N. & C. A. Desjardins (1999). Male dimorphism in Perdita portalis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) has arisen from preexisting allometric patterns. Insectes Sociaux 46:18-28.
  76. Danforth, B.N. & W.T. Wcislo (1999). Two new and highly apomorphic species of the Lasioglossum subgenus Evylaeus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) from Central America. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 92:624-630.
  77. Danforth, B.N, P. Mitchell & L. Packer (1998). Mitochondrial DNA differentiation between two cryptic Halictus species. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 91:387-391.
  78. Danforth, B.N. & S. Ji. (1998). Elongation factor-1α occurs as two copies in bees: Implications for phylogenetic analysis of EF-1α sequences in insects. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15(3):225-235.
  79. Wcislo, W.T. & B.N. Danforth (1997). Secondarily solitary: the evolutionary loss of social behavior. Trends Ecol. Evol. 12:468-474.
  80. Danforth, B.N. (1996). Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of the Perdita subgenera Macrotera, Macroteropsis, Macroterella and Cockerellula (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Kansas Science Bulletin 55(16):635-692.
  81. Danforth, B.N. & C.R. Freeman-Gallant (1996). DNA fingerprinting and the problem of non-independence among pairwise comparisons. Mol. Ecol. 5:221-227.
  82. Danforth, B.N., J.L. Neff, P. Barretto-Ko (1996). Nestmate relatedness in a communal bee, Perdita texana (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), based on DNA fingerprinting. Evolution 50(1):276-284.
  83. Danforth, B.N. (1994). Taxonomic review of Calliopsis subgenus Hypomacrotera (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) with special emphasis on the distributions and host plant associations. Pan-Pacific Entomol. 70:283-300.
  84. Danforth, B.N. & P.K. Vissher (1993). Dynamics of a host-cleptoparasitic relationship: Holcopasites ruthae as a parasite of Calliopsis pugionis (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae, Andrenidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am.86:833-840.
  85. Visscher, P.K. & B.N. Danforth (1993). Nesting, foraging and investment sex ratio in Calliopsis pugionis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am.86:822-832.
  86. Danforth, B.N. & J.L. Neff (1992). Male polymorphism and polyethism in Perdita texana (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 85:616-626.
  87. Neff, J.L. & B.N. Danforth (1991). The nesting and foraging behavior of Perdita texana Cresson (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 64:394-405.
  88. Norden, B.B., K.V. Krombein & B.N. Danforth (1992). Taxonomic and bionomic notes on Perdita (Hexaperdita) graenicheri. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 1:107-118.
  89. Snelling, R.R. & B.N. Danforth (1992). A review of the Perdita subgenus Macrotera (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 436:1-12.
  90. Danforth, B.N. (1991). Female foraging and intranest behavior of a communal bee, Perdita portalis Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 84:537-548.
  91. Danforth, B.N. (1991). The morphology and behavior of dimorphic males in Perdita portalis (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 29:235-247.
  92. Danforth, B.N. (1990). Provisioning behavior and the estimation of investment ratios in a solitary bee, Calliopsis (Hypomacrotera) persimilis (Cockerell) (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 27:159-168.
  93. Danforth, B.N. (1989). The evolution of hymenopteran wings: the importance of size. J. Zool., London 218:247-276.
  94. Danforth, B.N. (1989). Nesting behavior of four species of Perdita (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 62:59-79.
  95. Danforth, B.N. & C.D. Michener. 1988. Wing folding in the Hymenoptera. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 81:342-349.
  96. Schaaper, R., B. Danforth & B. Glickman (1986). Mechanisms of spontaneous mutagenesis: an analysis of the spectrum of spontaneous mutations in the E. coli lac I gene. J. Mol. Biol. 189:273-284.
  97. Schaaper, R., B. Danforth & B. Glickman (1985). Rapid repeated cloning of mutant lac repressor genes. Gene 39:181-189.

Bee Populations

In collaboration with colleagues at Rutgers University, the American Museum of Natural History, and the University of Connecticut, we recently analyzed over 140 years of historical data on bee geographic distributions from major entomological collections in eastern North America. Our analysis indicated that some groups of bees, especially bumblebees and highly specialized oil-collecting bees, have declined over time. However, many other bee groups appear to be stable. Our results are important because there are increasing concerns that the factors that are causing honeybee declines may also be negatively impacting native bees. Our results suggest that there has not been a significant decline in native bees species over the last 140 years, in spite of significant changes in land use and agricultural intensification.

Books

The Bee Genera of North and Central America

C.D. Michener, R.J. McGinley & B.N. Danforth
Smithsonian Institution Press
1994

Chapters

Bees, ants and stinging wasps (Aculeata)

S.G. Brady, L. Larkin & B.N. Danforth

In The Timetree of Life,
S.B. Hedges and S. Kumar, eds.
Oxford University Press
2009

RFLP analysis using heterologous probes

C.F. Aquadro, W.A. Noon, D.J. Begun & B.N. Danforth

In Molecular Genetic Analysis of Populations
A. R. Hoelzel
IRL Press (Oxford University Press)
1997

The evolution of social behavior in the augochlorine sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) based on a phylogenetic analysis of the genera

B.N. Danforth & G.C. Eickwort

In The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids
B. J. Crespi, & J.C. Choe
Cambridge University Press
1996